Posts in Category: 2021.08.21 | AUGUST 21 ISSUE


At 98, Gilbert Lopez died at his  home here on August 3. Funeral services were held August 20 followed by burial in San Ysidro Cemetery across from the Old Church. Born in Corrales in 1923, Lopez was a fixture in community life here for decades, including serving on the Planning and Zoning Commission in the late 1990s.
He was the son of Perfecto and Anita Lopez. After graduating from Albuquerque High in 1941, he enlisted in the Coast Guard during World War II, serving more than three years until the war’s end. That experience led to his eventual career in electrical engineering.

On GI Bill benefits, Lopez earned a bachelor of science degree at the University of New Mexico in 1949. With that training, he worked for the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs until his retirement in 1980. He also ran his own electrical engineering firm. 

He was active in the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the N.M. Society of Professional Engineers and the Illuminating Engineers. He is survived by sons Ronald and Patrick Lopez; daughters Loretta Perea and Joyce Lesperance and many grand-children.

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Long-time Cibola High School drama teacher Joan Kent died August 11 at age 93. The school’s theater bears her name. A memorial event will be held October 9, 6 p.m. at the Cibola theater. Those who wish to participate are urged to email Kathy Wimmer at actorharper

“One of Joan’s mottos was ‘Life is full of comedy and tragedy,’” her daughter, Connie Friedrichs, recalled. “And Joan experienced it all. She also taught so many how to express the range of those emotions onstage.” Kent taught drama for 23 years, becoming more than a coach and director, but a profound influence on the teen lives she touched. She retired in 1993.

Active in theater in her native Chicago, she began teaching drama at West Mesa High in 1970 after she moved with her family to the Albuquerque area in 1964. She transferred to Cibola High when it opened in 1975. She lived in Rio Rancho.

“She was a very important influence on our lives,” a Cibola drama student, Val Martinez, reflected. “She made us persistent and good. We didn’t understand how good we really were until we performed in national and international events.” Few of her students went on to careers in theater or film, but the training and dedication Kent imparted nevertheless imparted crucial life skills.

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Corrales’ Wendy Scott was one of those few. She is now a teaching artist for the Santa Fe Opera and has had roles in Breaking Bad and Better Call Saul. “Joan Kent had zero tolerance for passable work. She insisted we have persistence and dedication in our pursuit of excellent theater. Mrs. Kent was our biggest champion, and the first to put us in our place. I am positive that I am still working in the arts today because of the guidance and resilience I gained from a masterful teacher, Joan Kent.”

One of those who chose a different career, Jeff Handmaker (Class of 1988), put it this way. “Coming of age was already full of drama. We just managed to re-direct those energies into something wonderful.”

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This summer, the Kiwanis Club of Corrales resumed the kids’ summer camp south of Gallup that it has sponsored, organized and staffed since 2012. The annual event was cancelled last year due to the pandemic, but on June 2, 20 youngsters aged 10 to 16 from the Albuquerque metro area were driven to the rustic camp with three dormitories, lodge with commercial kitchen and small chapel surrounded by 160 acres of ponderosa and piñon woodland. The site is near Vanderwagon. “This is not the kind of camp where you drop off your kids to be managed by a dedicated staff. You have to do all that yourself!” one of the organizers, Dave Worledge, explained. So about a dozen members of Corrales’ Kiwanis Club volunteered to obtain the food, prepare, cook, and serve it, as well as to develop and manage the camp program of activities and instruct and supervise the kids at all times. 

The camp experience was started in 2012 as a memorial to  Pamela Worledge, who was an enthusiastic camper and founding treasurer of the local club. Counselors at Corrales Elementary and Taylor Middle schools recommend deserving campers based on family circumstances and good behavior, he said. “We create four teams balanced with regard to boys, girls, age and abilities. Each team has a team leader, selected for maturity and leadership ability. Pretty much all camp activities contribute to the points system by which the teams compete, e.g. performance in games, participation, team names, banners (and coats of arms this year), totems, skits, building wilderness shelters, washing up, sweeping, cleaning bathrooms, behavior and helpfulness.” Worledge added.  

The emphasis is on building social skills, teamwork and personal confidence. To that end KCC designed and installed a 10-stage low ropes course back in 2011. “On the course, the emphasis is showing kids they can all find their own level and improve their own performance with a bit of grit and help from others. It has the added benefit that they find helping others increases their own pleasure and confidence, builds team spirit, and makes everyone happy.” 

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The camp experience includes camp-fires, hot dogs, Dutch oven cobbler  while ‘Smores add their own magic. The climax of these activities is the grand “Olympic Games” that culminate in a team tug-of-war over a sloppy mud pit.

“We are tremendously grateful for financial support from the Corrales Ditch Run, an annual grant from the Royal Bank of Canada, occasional donations, and transport of the kids to and from the camp provided at very little cost by the drivers and vans of the Rio Rancho Boys and Girls Club,” Worledge commended. “We are also grateful for support from the Corrales Harvest Festival, on which we relied very heavily in the early years, and which still comes to our rescue when the need arises.”

Throughout the five-day camp, children have continual access to art materials.  This year Denise Stramel gave rock-painting sessions.

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The former coordinator for Corrales’ walk-and-bike-to-school program, Democrat Laura Montoya, seeks election as New Mexico State Treasurer. She served two terms as Sandoval County treasurer, stepping down in December 2020. She is a Rio Rancho resident, born and raised in Las Vegas. After a degree in political science and psychology, followed by a master’s in public affairs, Montoya was then-U.S. Senator Jeff Bingaman’s constituent services representatives for northern New Mexico.

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In announcing her candidacy, she pointed out that Sandoval County has more than $50 million in non-property taxes, is charged  with collecting more than $1.2 billion in property taxes and has invested more than $40 million of those funds. When she was elected Sandoval County treasurer in 2012, she was one of the youngest elected officials in the state. Since leaving office, she has taught classes to county-elected officials and government employees.

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A construction company owned by long-time Corrales resident Brian Kilcup is working on yet another project here after converting the old Corrales Valley Fire Station into the new Planning and Zoning Office and Animal Control station. Based in Albuquerque, Kilcup’s FacilityBuild firm is nearing completion on plans for a new gymnasium at the recreation center, a two-phase project that could begin next spring. A former chairman for the Corrales Bicycle, Pedestrian Advisory Commission, Kilcup sat down for a Corrales Comment interview July 26 after a brisk bike ride through the Bosque Preserve.

He built his home along Rivera Lane in 1987 about a decade after he started a company that removed asbestos from buildings around New Mexico, the Southwest and even beyond. That business, Keers Remediation, employed 160 people at one time, and that success opened opportunities that led to formation of FacilityBuild. “Our clients were pleased, so they wanted us to replace what we had taken down,” he explained.  “That took on a life of its own.”

The construction firm specializes in commercial projects. “We decided the best way to enter the market —because there were a lot of commercial constructions already operating here— was  to establish a niche, to offer design and build construction.” Among other things, that means his firm has architects and engineers on staff. “Our teams work together: we have an architect, a cost-estimator and a project manager who work together collaboratively. “I think that’s what initially attracted the Village of Corrales.”

His first project here was the Main Fire Station’s building for a kitchen and fitness room. The fire chief had become discouraged when another firm’s cost estimates for the proposed structure were much higher than anticipated. “They had hired an architect and engineering company that  turned in plans that were way over their budget.  So they were completely discouraged, so they called us in to look over those plans to see what we could do. We designed the basics for what they wanted to their budget, and we constructed it in 2017, I think. 

“The Village liked it so much that they just recently asked us to come back and complete the second phase, which is a dormitory above the new kitchen and exercise area so that the fire-rescue personnel could sleep overnight. During the COVID pandemic, that was really important to them. They need to stay sequestered, because if they get sick, who do we have to respond to emergencies?”

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But that followed two other projects:  renovation of the barns on the Jones property acquired for the Village’s Public Works Department in 2018 and converting the Valley Fire Station for the P&Z offices in the spring of 2020. Kilcup said renovation of the Jones barn and shed was a fun project for FacilityBuild. “It just worked out perfectly. We enjoy projects like that.” When FacilityBuild was asked to convert the old fire station to P&Z offices and Animal Control, the Village “really wanted to retain the old fire station look, and that meant not expanding the building’s footprint.” So the appearance of the old firetruck bays on the wall facing Corrales Road was incorporated, and a sign was hung to signify its heritage as the Corrales Valley Fire Station.

“We did that and they were pleased, so the next one ahead is the new gymnasium complex at the recreation center,” he  noted. FacilityBuild does not bid individually on construction projects for the Corrales or other entities. “We have a little different approach. What we do is design-build-and deliver through State contracts. The State’s procurement contracts are all competitive. The competitive bidding is already done. So we can step in and work collaboratively with the client to give them what they want. And if it’s not what they want, we can revise the design quickly based on an already established price list. “That leads to a collaborative environment that gets things done quicker and better. We get the client the biggest bang for the buck.

“The Village has been a very good steward of the public funds. They don’t throw a blank check at you.”

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Another attempt to improve water supply for the Cuba area has been presented to the Sandoval County Commission. At its August 19 meeting, the commission was asked to endorse a proposal by KNeW to produce potable water from deep aquifers in the Rio Puerco area using ion exchange technology developed by the company. According to its prospectus, the process would be used as feedstock to produce fertilizer while potable water would be a byproduct. The County Commission was not asked to fund the project. But  a decade ago, the commission spent more than  $7 million on an aborted de-salinization project in the Rio Puerco area. 

Back in 2010, Sandoval County government agreed to pay engineers to design a water desalinization plant to purify up to five million gallons of brackish water daily from a deep well in the Rio Puerco basin. County commissioners gave the go-ahead to advertise for bids to design the project despite persistent doubts over cost, disposal of salt and other impurities to be removed from the water and socio-economic implications of encouraging growth. Already $7 million in County funds had been spent to explore the feasibility of the water project intended to spur future industrial development. Building that desalinization plant was estimated to cost about $75 million, and another $28 million would be associated with disposing of the extracted salt and recovering and processing the lime.

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In 2010, the County issued a letter of support for a proposal by Native Energy Development to construct a $60 million power plant to serve the  desalinization project. At the County Commission’s January 21, 2010 meeting, its Division of County Development won approval to proceed with advertising for a contract to design the desalinization project, and support for the Native Energy Development proposal for the associated power plant.

The resolution before the commission this time refers to the earlier project, noting that “in 2011, Sandoval County conducted an extensive analysis of the Rio Puerco Deep Water Aquifer. Testing and analysis found that the aquifer contained at least 576,000 acre-feet  of recoverable water and may contain up to 2.6 million acre-feet of recoverable water.”

The 2021 resolution further notes that “the KNeW Company believes it can provide 528,344 gallons per day to the village in order to meet its existing consumption needs of about 420,000 gallons per day. The additional 108,344 gpd could be used for economic development purposes and potential job creation. An expanded facility has the potential to double the amount of available water for Cuba and the surrounding area including water for agriculture.”

The commission’s resolution suggests the technology “may have many applications throughout Sandoval County” and therefore it “fully supports the continued growth and development of this new company in our county.”

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Purchase of two more conservation easements were expected to occur at the August 17 Village Council meeting. They would be the last uses of the $2.5 million in general obligation bonds approved by voters in 2018. The council was presented with purchase agreements on farmland owned by Courtenay and Anne Koontz and by  Emilio, Veronica and Renee Lopez. Approval has been expected since spring, so council action basically would be acceptance of the appraisals and direction to proceed with the acquisition.

The proposed easement on the 10-acre Phelps Farm, owned by the Koontzes, is appraised at $820,000. The easement on the three-acre Lopez Farm was appraised at $370,000. Councillors’ decision August 17 could not be included in this issue. The Phelps Farm was acquired by Courtenay Koontz for Trees of Corrales in 2016, sold by Phelps McKinley, Jr. Last year, the Village acquired a similar easement on the Haslam family’s farm a little south of the Phelps and Lopez tracts between the Main Canal and the Corrales Lateral irrigation ditch west of Corrales Road.  That earlier acquisition preserved 12 acres at a cost of approximately $960,000 from those bonds.

The easement agreement between the  Lopez family and the Village of Corrales notes that the three acres “includes scenic open space located along, visible from, and directly adjacent to Corrales Road, the primary thoroughfare through the village and the Corrales Bosque Preserve; and a public recreational trail along Sandoval Lateral, which is frequented by many residents and visitors for walking, running, horseback riding and mountain biking. The publicly accessible viewing platform along the Sandoval Lateral and Corrales Bosque Preserve will also provide significant opportunities for the public to enjoy the scenic values of the property.”

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As with earlier farmland  added to the Village’s farmland preservation program, the easements to be acquired would be held and administered for the Village by the New Mexico Land Conservancy, based in Santa Fe. If the Lopez deal goes through, the owners of the land, or any subsequent owners, would have the right to construct an agriculture-related building within a quarter-acre enclave, similar to other earlier transactions. At the May 25 Village Council meeting, an option to purchase a conservation easement on that land owned by Courtnay and Anne Koontz was approved unanimously. (See Corrales Comment Vol.XXXX No.8 June 5, 2021 “Another 10 Acres of Prime Farmland To Be Saved.”)

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Some people are more trusting of predictions and computer model projections than others. More than most, Corraleños likely are comfortable letting probabilities guide their decisions,  at least to some extent. The United Nations report attracting so much attention these days, that of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) titled “Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis,” offers conclusions for policy makers based mostly on probabilities. And those are dire indeed. Of course, predictions can be notoriously, even laughably, wrong. Choose your worst example.

But among the statements of fact —not speculation or guesswork— are the following.

• “The scale of recent changes across the climate system as a whole and the present state of many aspects of the climate system are unprecedented over many centuries to many thousands of years.”

• “Human-induced climate change is already affecting many weather and climate extremes in every region across the globe. Evidence of observed changes in extremes such as heatwaves, heavy precipitation, droughts and tropical cyclones and, in particular, their attribution to human influence, has strengthened since [the previous IPCC assessment report.]”

• “Heating of the climate system has caused global mean sea level rise through ice loss on land and thermal expansion from ocean warming. Thermal expansion explained 50 percent of sea level rise during 1971-2018, while ice loss from glaciers contributed 22 percent, ice sheets 20 percent and changes in landwater storage eight percent. The rate of ice sheet loss increased by a factor of four between 1992-1999 and 2010-2019.

“Together, ice sheet and glacier mass loss were the dominant contributors to global mean sea  level rise during 2006-2018.”

• “It is unequivocal that human influence has warmed the atmosphere, ocean and land. Widespread and rapid changes in the atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere and biosphere have occurred.”

Not just another technical report chock-full of specialists’ jargon, the 4,000-page document compiled by more than 500 contributing authors and reviewed by more than 230 climate experts around the world, has a summary for policymakers with four sections: The Current State of the Climate; Possible Climate Futures; Climate Information for Risk Assessment and Regional Adaptation; and Limiting Future Climate Change.

That 41-page summary is directed at you, as a citizen, and the people you choose to set policies in your best interest. So you need to understand what’s going on, and then do what it takes to persuade public and private decisionmakers to address the documented crises.

Perhaps the biggest advances over the IPCC’s previous reports are improvements in scientists’ ability to attribute  specific weather phenomena to climate change that has resulted from human activities.

Below are verbatim excepts from the report’s summary for policymakers. Each of these findings is followed by references to technical reports and other data from which they are derived. Those references are not included in what follows. Many of those findings include an assessment as to the probability of (or confidence in) accuracy; those are included here.

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• A.1.3. The likely range of total human-caused global surface temperature increase from 1850–1900 to 2010–201911 is 0.8°C to 1.3°C, with a best estimate of 1.07°C. It is likely that well-mixed GHGs contributed a warming of 1.0°C to 2.0°C, other human drivers (principally aerosols) contributed a cooling of 0.0°C to 0.8°C, natural drivers changed global surface temperature by –0.1°C to 0.1°C, and internal variability changed it by –0.2°C to 0.2°C. It is very likely that well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) were the main driver of tropospheric warming since 1979, and extremely likely that human-caused stratospheric ozone depletion was the main driver of cooling of the lower stratosphere between 1979 and the mid-1990s.

• A.1.4. Globally averaged precipitation over land has likely increased since 1950, with a faster rate of increase since the 1980s (medium confidence). It is likely that human influence contributed to the pattern of observed precipitation changes since the mid-20th century, and extremely likely that human influence contributed to the pattern of observed changes in near-surface ocean salinity. Mid-latitude storm tracks have likely shifted poleward in both hemispheres since the 1980s, with marked seasonality in trends (medium confidence). For the Southern Hemisphere, human influence very likely contributed to the poleward shift of the closely related extratropical jet in austral summer.

•A.1.5. Human influence is very likely the main driver of the global retreat of glaciers since the 1990s and the decrease in Arctic sea ice area between 1979–1988 and 2010–2019 (about 40% in September and about 0% in March). There has been no significant trend in Antarctic sea ice area from 1979 to 2020 due to regionally opposing trends and large internal variability. Human influence very likely contributed to the decrease in Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover since 1950. It is very likely that human influence has contributed to the observed surface melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past two decades, but there is only limited evidence, with medium agreement, of human influence on the Antarctic Ice Sheet mass loss.

• A.1.6. It is virtually certain that the global upper ocean (0–700 m) has warmed since the 1970s and extremely likely that human influence is the main driver. It is virtually certain that human-caused CO2 emissions are the main driver of current global acidification of the surface open ocean. There is high confidence that oxygen levels have dropped in many upper ocean regions since the mid-20th century, and medium confidence that human influence contributed to this drop.

• A.1.7. Global mean sea level increased by 0.20 [0.15 to 0.25] meter between 1901 and 2018. The average rate of sea level rise was 1.3 [0.6 to 2.1] mm yr–1 between 1901 and 1971, increasing to 1.9 [0.8 to 2.9] mm yr–1 between 1971 and 2006, and further increasing to 3.7 [3.2 to 4.2] mm yr–1 between 2006 and 2018 (high confidence). Human influence was very likely the main driver of these increases since at least 1971.

• A.1.8. Changes in the land biosphere since 1970 are consistent with global warming: climate zones have shifted poleward in both hemispheres, and the growing season has on average lengthened by up to two days per decade since the 1950s in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics (high confidence).

Human influence has warmed the climate at a rate that is unprecedented in at least the last 2,000 years.

• A.2. The scale of recent changes across the climate system as a whole and the present state of many aspects of the climate system are unprecedented over many centuries to many thousands of years.

• A.2.1. In 2019, atmospheric CO2 [carbon dioxide] concentrations were higher than at any time in at least 2 million years (high confidence), and concentrations of CH4 and N2O were higher than at any time in at least 800,000 years (very high confidence). Since 1750, increases in CO2 (47%) and CH4 (156%) concentrations far exceed, and increases in N2O (23%) are similar to, the natural multi-millennial changes between glacial and interglacial periods over at least the past 800,000 years (very high confidence).

• A.2.2 Global surface temperature has increased faster since 1970 than in any other 50-year period over at least the last 2,000 years (high confidence). Temperatures during the most recent decade (2011–2020) exceed those of the most recent multi-century warm period, around 6500 years ago13 [0.2°C to 1°C relative to 1850– 1900] (medium confidence). Prior to that, the next most recent warm period was about 125,000 years ago when the multi-century temperature [0.5°C to 1.5°C relative to 1850–1900] overlaps the observations of the most recent decade (medium confidence).

• A.2.3. In 2011–2020, annual average Arctic sea ice area reached its lowest level since at least 1850 (high confidence). Late summer Arctic sea ice area was smaller than at any time in at least the past 1000 years (medium confidence). The global nature of glacier retreat, with almost all of the world’s glaciers retreating synchronously, since the 1950s is unprecedented in at least the last 2000 years (medium confidence).

• A.2.4. Global mean sea level has risen faster since 1900 than over any preceding century in at least the last 3,000 years (high confidence). The global ocean has warmed faster over the past century than since the end of the last deglacial transition (around 11,000 years ago) (medium confidence). A long-term increase in surface open ocean pH occurred over the past 50 million years (high confidence), and surface open ocean pH as low as recent decades is unusual in the last 2 million years (medium confidence).

• A.3. Human-induced climate change is already affecting many weather and climate extremes in every region across the globe. Evidence of observed changes in extremes such as heatwaves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and tropical cyclones, and, in particular, their attribution to human influence, has strengthened since AR5 [the previous IPCC assessment].

• A.3. It is virtually certain that hot extremes (including heatwaves) have become more frequent and more intense across most land regions since the 1950s, while cold extremes (including cold waves) have become less frequent and less severe, with high confidence that human-induced climate change is the main driver of these changes. Some recent hot extremes observed over the past decade would have been extremely unlikely to occur without human influence on the climate system. Marine heatwaves have approximately doubled in frequency since the 1980s (high confidence), and human influence has very likely contributed to most of them since at least 2006.

• A.3.2. The frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation events have increased since the 1950s over most land area for which observational data are sufficient for trend analysis (high confidence), and human-induced climate change is likely the main driver. Human-induced climate change has contributed to increases in agricultural and ecological droughts in some regions due to increased land evapotranspiration16 (medium confidence).

A.3.3. Decreases in global land monsoon precipitation from the 1950s to the 1980s are partly attributed to human-caused Northern Hemisphere aerosol emissions, but increases since then have resulted from rising GHG concentrations and decadal to multi-decadal internal variability (medium confidence). Over South Asia, East Asia and West Africa increases in monsoon precipitation due to warming from GHG emissions were counteracted by decreases in monsoon precipitation due to cooling from human-caused aerosol emissions over the 20th century (high confidence). Increases in West African monsoon precipitation since the 1980s are partly due to the growing influence of GHGs and reductions in the cooling effect of human-caused aerosol emissions over Europe and North America (medium confidence).

• A.3.4. It is likely that the global proportion of major (Category 3–5) tropical cyclone occurrence has increased over the last four decades, and the latitude where tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific reach their peak intensity has shifted northward; these changes cannot be explained by internal variability alone (medium confidence). There is low confidence in long-term (multi-decadal to centennial) trends in the frequency of all-category tropical cyclones. Event attribution studies and physical understanding indicate that human-induced climate change increases heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones (high confidence) but data limitations inhibit clear detection of past trends on the global scale.

• A.3.5. Human influence has likely increased the chance of compound extreme events since the 1950s.

This includes increases in the frequency of concurrent heatwaves and droughts on the global scale (high confidence); fire weather in some regions of all inhabited continents (medium confidence); and compound flooding in some locations (medium confidence).

• A.4. Improved knowledge of climate processes, paleoclimate evidence and the response of the climate system to increasing radiative forcing gives a best estimate of equilibrium climate sensitivity of 3°C with a narrower range compared to AR5 [the fifth PCC assessment report].

• A.4.1. Human-caused radiative forcing of 2.72 [1.96 to 3.48] W m–2 in 2019 relative to 1750 has warmed the climate system. This warming is mainly due to increased GHG concentrations, partly reduced by cooling due to increased aerosol concentrations. The radiative forcing has increased by 0.43 W m–2 (19%) relative to AR5, of which 0.34 W m–2 is due to the increase in GHG concentrations since 2011. The remainder is due to improved scientific understanding and changes in the assessment of aerosol forcing, which include decreases in concentration and improvement in its calculation (high confidence).

• A.4.2. Human-caused net positive radiative forcing causes an accumulation of additional energy (heating) in the climate system, partly reduced by increased energy loss to space in response to surface warming. The observed average rate of heating of the climate system increased from 0.50 [0.32 to 0.69] W m–2 for the period 1971–200619, to 0.79 [0.52 to 1.06] W m–2 for the period 2006–201820 (high confidence). Ocean warming accounted for 91% of the heating in the climate system, with land warming, ice loss and atmospheric warming accounting for about 5%, 3% and 1%, respectively (high confidence).

• A.4.3. Heating of the climate system has caused global mean sea level rise through ice loss on land and thermal expansion from ocean warming. Thermal expansion explained 50% of sea level rise during 1971– 2018, while ice loss from glaciers contributed 22%, ice sheets 20% and changes in land water storage 8%.

The rate of ice sheet loss increased by a factor of four between 1992–1999 and 2010–2019. Together, ice sheet and glacier mass loss were the dominant contributors to global mean sea level rise during 2006-2018. (high confidence)

Section B. Possible Climate Futures

A set of five new illustrative emissions scenarios is considered consistently across this report to explore the climate response to a broader range of greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and air pollutant futures than assessed in AR5. This set of scenarios drives climate model projections of changes in the climate system.

These projections account for solar activity and background forcing from volcanoes. Results over the 21st century are provided for the near-term (2021–2040), mid-term (2041–2060) and long-term (2081–2100) relative to 1850–1900, unless otherwise stated.

• B.1. Global surface temperature will continue to increase until at least the mid-century under all emissions scenarios considered. Global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C will be exceeded during the 21st century unless deep reductions in CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions occur in the coming decades.

• B.1.1. Compared to 1850–1900, global surface temperature averaged over 2081–2100 is very likely to be higher by 1.0°C to 1.8°C under the very low GHG emissions scenario considered (SSP1-1.9), by 2.1°C to 3.5°C in the intermediate scenario (SSP2-4.5) and by 3.3°C to 5.7°C under the very high GHG emissions scenario (SSP5-8.5)24.

The last time global surface temperature was sustained at or above 2.5°C higher than 1850–1900 was over 3 million years ago (medium confidence). 1900, would be exceeded during the 21st century under the high and very high GHG emissions scenarios considered in this report (SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5, respectively). Global warming of 2°C would extremely likely be exceeded in the intermediate scenario (SSP2-4.5). Under the very low and low GHG emissions scenarios, global warming of 2°C is extremely unlikely to be exceeded (SSP1-1.9), or unlikely to be exceeded (SSP1-2.6)25. Crossing the 2°C global warming level in the mid-term period (2041–2060) is very likely to occur under the very high GHG emissions scenario (SSP5-8.5), likely to occur under the high GHG emissions scenario (SSP3-7.0), and more likely than not to occur in the intermediate GHG emissions scenario (SSP2-4.5).

• B.1.3. Global warming of 1.5°C relative to 1850-1900 would be exceeded during the 21st century under the intermediate, high and very high scenarios considered in this report (SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5, respectively). Under the five illustrative scenarios, in the near term (2021-2040), the 1.5°C global warming level is very likely to be exceeded under the very high GHG emissions scenario (SSP5-8.5), likely to be exceeded under the intermediate and high GHG emissions scenarios (SSP2-4.5 and SSP3-7.0), more likely than not to be exceeded under the low GHG emissions scenario (SSP1-2.6) and more likely than not to be reached under the very low GHG emissions scenario (SSP1-1.9)27. Furthermore, for the very low GHG emissions scenario (SSP1-1.9), it is more likely than not that global surface temperature would decline back to below 1.5°C toward the end of the 21st century, with a temporary overshoot of no more than 0.1°C above 1.5°C global warming.

• B.1.4. Global surface temperature in any single year can vary above or below the long-term human-induced trend, due to substantial natural variability. The occurrence of individual years with global surface temperature change above a certain level, for example 1.5°C or 2ºC, relative to 1850–1900 does not imply that this global warming level has been reached.

• B.2. Many changes in the climate system become larger in direct relation to increasing global warming. They include increases in the frequency and intensity of hot extremes, marine heatwaves, and heavy precipitation, agricultural and ecological droughts in some regions, and proportion of intense tropical cyclones, as well as reductions in Arctic sea ice, snow cover and permafrost.

• B.2.1. It is virtually certain that the land surface will continue to warm more than the ocean surface (likely 1.4 to 1.7 times more). It is virtually certain that the Arctic will continue to warm more than global surface temperature, with high confidence above two times the rate of global warming.

• B.2.2. With every additional increment of global warming, changes in extremes continue to become larger.

For example, every additional 0.5°C of global warming causes clearly discernible increases in the intensity and frequency of hot extremes, including heatwaves (very likely), and heavy precipitation (high confidence), as well as agricultural and ecological droughts30 in some regions (high confidence). Discernible changes in intensity and frequency of meteorological droughts, with more regions showing increases than decreases, are seen in some regions for every additional 0.5°C of global warming (medium confidence). Increases in frequency and intensity of hydrological droughts become larger with increasing global warming in some regions (medium confidence). There will be an increasing occurrence of some extreme events unprecedented in the observational record with additional global warming, even at 1.5°C of global warming. Projected percentage changes in frequency are higher for rarer events (high confidence).

B.2.3. Some mid-latitude and semi-arid regions, and the South American Monsoon region, are projected to see the highest increase in the temperature of the hottest days, at about 1.5 to 2 times the rate of global warming (high confidence). The Arctic is projected to experience the highest increase in the temperature of the coldest days, at about 3 times the rate of global warming (high confidence). With additional global warming, the frequency of marine heatwaves will continue to increase (high confidence), particularly in the tropical ocean and the Arctic (medium confidence).

• B.2.4. It is very likely that heavy precipitation events will intensify and become more frequent in most regions with additional global warming. At the global scale, extreme daily precipitation events are projected to intensify by about 7% for each 1°C of global warming (high confidence). The proportion of intense tropical cyclones (categories 4-5) and peak wind speeds of the most intense tropical cyclones are projected to increase at the global scale with increasing global warming (high confidence).

• B.2.5. Additional warming is projected to further amplify permafrost thawing, and loss of seasonal snow cover, of land ice and of Arctic sea ice (high confidence). The Arctic is likely to be practically sea ice free in September at least once before 2050 under the five illustrative scenarios considered in this report, with more frequent occurrences for higher warming levels. There is low confidence in the projected decrease of Antarctic sea ice.

• B.3. Continued global warming is projected to further intensify the global water cycle, including its variability, global monsoon precipitation and the severity of wet and dry events.

• B.3.1. There is strengthened evidence since AR5 that the global water cycle will continue to intensify as global temperatures rise (high confidence), with precipitation and surface water flows projected to become more variable over most land regions within seasons (high confidence) and from year to year (medium confidence). The average annual global land precipitation is projected to increase by 0–5% under the very low GHG emissions scenario (SSP1-1.9), 1.5-8% for the intermediate GHG emissions scenario (SSP2-4.5) and 1–13% under the very high GHG emissions scenario (SSP5-8.5) by 2081–2100 relative to 1995-2014 (likely ranges). Precipitation is projected to increase over high latitudes, the equatorial Pacific and parts of the monsoon regions, but decrease over parts of the subtropics and limited areas in the tropics in SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 (very likely). The portion of the global land experiencing detectable increases or decreases in seasonal mean precipitation is projected to increase (medium confidence). There is high confidence in an earlier onset of spring snowmelt, with higher peak flows at the expense of summer flows in snow-dominated regions globally.

• B.3.2. A warmer climate will intensify very wet and very dry weather and climate events and seasons, with implications for flooding or drought (high confidence), but the location and frequency of these events depend on projected changes in regional atmospheric circulation, including monsoons and mid-latitude storm tracks.

It is very likely that rainfall variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation is projected to be amplified by the second half of the 21st century in the SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios.

• B.3.3. Monsoon precipitation is projected to increase in the mid- to long term at global scale, particularly over South and Southeast Asia, East Asia and West Africa apart from the far west Sahel (high confidence).

The monsoon season is projected to have a delayed onset over North and South America and West Africa (high confidence) and a delayed retreat over West Africa (medium confidence).

• B.3.4. A projected southward shift and intensification of Southern Hemisphere summer mid-latitude storm tracks and associated precipitation is likely in the long term under high GHG emissions scenarios (SSP3-7.0, SSP5-8.5), but in the near term the effect of stratospheric ozone recovery counteracts these changes (high confidence). There is medium confidence in a continued poleward shift of storms and their precipitation in the North Pacific, while there is low confidence in projected changes in the North Atlantic storm tracks.

• B.4. Under scenarios with increasing CO2 emissions, the ocean and land carbon sinks are projected to be less effective at slowing the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere.

• B.4.1. While natural land and ocean carbon sinks are projected to take up, in absolute terms, a progressively larger amount of CO2 under higher compared to lower CO2 emissions scenarios, they become less effective, that is, the proportion of emissions taken up by land and ocean decrease with increasing cumulative CO2 emissions. This is projected to result in a higher proportion of emitted CO2 remaining in the atmosphere (high confidence).

• B.4.2. Based on model projections, under the intermediate scenario that stabilizes atmospheric CO2 concentrations this century (SSP2-4.5), the rates of CO2 taken up by the land and oceans are projected to decrease in the second half of the 21st century (high confidence). Under the very low and low GHG emissions scenarios (SSP1-1.9, SSP1-2.6), where CO2 concentrations peak and decline during the 21st century, land and oceans begin to take up less carbon in response to declining atmospheric CO2 concentrations (high confidence) and turn into a weak net source by 2100 under SSP1-1.9 (medium confidence). It is very unlikely that the combined global land and ocean sink will turn into a source by 2100 under scenarios without net negative emissions.

• B.4.3. The magnitude of feedbacks between climate change and the carbon cycle becomes larger but also more uncertain in high CO2 emissions scenarios (very high confidence). However, climate model projections show that the uncertainties in atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 2100 are dominated by the differences between emissions scenarios (high confidence). Additional ecosystem responses to warming not yet fully included in climate models, such as CO2 and CH4 fluxes from wetlands, permafrost thaw and wildfires, would further increase concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere (high confidence).

• B.5. Many changes due to past and future greenhouse gas emissions are irreversible for centuries to millennia, especially changes in the ocean, ice sheets and global sea level.

• B.5.1. Past GHG emissions since 1750 have committed the global ocean to future warming (high confidence). Over the rest of the 21st century, likely ocean warming ranges from 2–4 (SSP1-2.6) to 4–8 times (SSP5-8.5) the 1971–2018 change. Based on multiple lines of evidence, upper ocean stratification (virtually certain), ocean acidification (virtually certain) and ocean deoxygenation (high confidence) will continue to increase in the 21st century, at rates dependent on future emissions. Changes are irreversible on centennial to millennial time scales in global ocean temperature (very high confidence), deep ocean acidification (very high confidence) and de-oxygenation (medium confidence).

• B.5.2. Mountain and polar glaciers are committed to continue melting for decades or centuries (very high confidence). Loss of permafrost carbon following permafrost thaw is irreversible at centennial timescales (high confidence). Continued ice loss over the 21st century is virtually certain for the Greenland Ice Sheet and likely for the Antarctic Ice Sheet. There is high confidence that total ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet will increase with cumulative emissions. There is limited evidence for low-likelihood, high-impact outcomes (resulting from ice sheet instability processes characterized by deep uncertainty and in some cases involving tipping points) that would strongly increase ice loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet for centuries under high GHG emissions scenarios.

• B.5.3. It is virtually certain that global mean sea level will continue to rise over the 21st century. Relative to 1995-2014, the likely global mean sea level rise by 2100 is 0.28-0.55 m under the very low GHG emissions scenario (SSP1-1.9), 0.32-0.62 m under the low GHG emissions scenario (SSP1-2.6), 0.44-0.76 m under the intermediate GHG emissions scenario (SSP2-4.5), and 0.63-1.01 m under the very high GHG emissions scenario (SSP5-8.5), and by 2150 is 0.37-0.86 m under the very low scenario (SSP1-1.9), 0.46- 0.99 m under the low scenario (SSP1-2.6), 0.66-1.33 m under the intermediate scenario (SSP2-4.5), and 0.98-1.88 m under the very high scenario (SSP5-8.5) (medium confidence)35. Global mean sea level rise above the likely range – approaching 2 m by 2100 and 5 m by 2150 under a very high GHG emissions scenario (SSP5-8.5) (low confidence) – cannot be ruled out due to deep uncertainty in ice sheet processes.

• B.5.4. In the longer term, sea level is committed to rise for centuries to millennia due to continuing deep ocean warming and ice sheet melt, and will remain elevated for thousands of years (high confidence). Over the next 2000 years, global mean sea level will rise by about 2 to 3 m if warming is limited to 1.5°C, 2 to 6 m if limited to 2°C and 19 to 22 m with 5°C of warming, and it will continue to rise over subsequent millennia (low confidence). Projections of multi-millennial global mean sea level rise are consistent with reconstructed levels during past warm climate periods: likely 5–10 m higher than today around 125,000 years ago, when global temperatures were very likely 0.5°C–1.5°C higher than 1850–1900; and very likely 5–25 m higher roughly 3 million years ago, when global temperatures were 2.5°C–4°C higher (medium confidence).

• C. Climate Information for Risk Assessment and Regional Adaptation

Physical climate information addresses how the climate system responds to the interplay between human influence, natural drivers and internal variability. Knowledge of the climate response and the range of possible outcomes, including low-likelihood, high impact outcomes, informs climate services – the assessment of climate-related risks and adaptation planning. Physical climate information at global, regional and local scales is developed from multiple lines of evidence, including observational products, climate model outputs and tailored diagnostics.

• C.1. Natural drivers and internal variability will modulate human-caused changes, especially at regional scales and in the near term, with little effect on centennial global warming.

These modulations are important to consider in planning for the full range of possible changes.

• C.1.1. The historical global surface temperature record highlights that decadal variability has enhanced and masked underlying human-caused long-term changes, and this variability will continue into the future (very high confidence). For example, internal decadal variability and variations in solar and volcanic drivers partially masked human-caused surface global warming during 1998–2012, with pronounced regional and seasonal signatures (high confidence). Nonetheless, the heating of the climate system continued during this period, as reflected in both the continued warming of the global ocean (very high confidence) and in the continued rise of hot extremes over land (medium confidence).

• C.1.2. Projected human caused changes in mean climate and climatic impact-drivers (CIDs)36, including extremes, will be either amplified or attenuated by internal variability (high confidence). Near-term cooling at any particular location with respect to present climate could occur and would be consistent with the global surface temperature increase due to human influence (high confidence).

• C.1.3. Internal variability has largely been responsible for the amplification and attenuation of the observed human-caused decadal-to-multi-decadal mean precipitation changes in many land regions (high confidence).

At global and regional scales, near-term changes in monsoons will be dominated by the effects of internal variability (medium confidence). In addition to internal variability influence, near-term projected changes in precipitation at global and regional scales are uncertain because of model uncertainty and uncertainty in forcings from natural and anthropogenic aerosols (medium confidence).

• C.1.4. Based on paleoclimate and historical evidence, it is likely that at least one large explosive volcanic eruption would occur during the 21st century. Such an eruption would reduce global surface temperature and precipitation, especially over land, for one to three years, alter the global monsoon circulation, modify extreme precipitation and change many CIDs (medium confidence). If such an eruption occurs, this would therefore temporarily and partially mask human-caused climate change.

• C.2. With further global warming, every region is projected to increasingly experience concurrent and multiple changes in climatic impact-drivers. Changes in several climatic impact-drivers would be more widespread at 2°C compared to 1.5°C global warming and even more widespread and/or pronounced for higher warming levels.

• C.2.1. All regions are projected to experience further increases in hot climatic impact-drivers (CIDs) and decreases in cold CIDs (high confidence). Further decreases are projected in permafrost, snow, glaciers and ice sheets, lake and Arctic sea ice (medium to high confidence). These changes would be larger at 2°C global warming or above than at 1.5°C (high confidence). For example, extreme heat thresholds relevant to agriculture and health are projected to be exceeded more frequently at higher global warming levels (high confidence).

• C.2.2. At 1.5°C global warming, heavy precipitation and associated flooding are projected to intensify and be more frequent in most regions in Africa and Asia (high confidence), North America (medium to high confidence) and Europe (medium confidence). Also, more frequent and/or severe agricultural and ecological droughts are projected in a few regions in all continents except Asia compared to 1850–1900 (medium confidence); increases in meteorological droughts are also projected in a few regions (medium confidence). A small number of regions are projected to experience increases or decreases in mean precipitation (medium confidence).

• C.2.3. At 2°C global warming and above, the level of confidence in and the magnitude of the change in droughts and heavy and mean precipitation increase compared to those at 1.5°C. Heavy precipitation and associated flooding events are projected to become more intense and frequent in the Pacific Islands and across many regions of North America and Europe (medium to high confidence). These changes are also seen in some regions in Australasia and Central and South America (medium confidence). Several regions in Africa, South America and Europe are projected to experience an increase in frequency and/or severity of agricultural and ecological droughts with medium to high confidence; increases are also projected in Australasia, Central and North America, and the Caribbean with medium confidence. A small number of regions in Africa, Australasia, Europe and North America are also projected to be affected by increases in hydrological droughts, and several regions are projected to be affected by increases or decreases in meteorological droughts with more regions displaying an increase (medium confidence). Mean precipitation is projected to increase in all polar, northern European and northern North American regions, most Asian regions and two regions of South America (high confidence).

• C.2.4. More CIDs across more regions are projected to change at 2°C and above compared to 1.5°C global warming (high confidence). Region-specific changes include intensification of tropical cyclones and/or extratropical storms (medium confidence), increases in river floods (medium to high confidence), reductions in mean precipitation and increases in aridity (medium to high confidence), and increases in fire weather (medium to high confidence). There is low confidence in most regions in potential future changes in other CIDs, such as hail, ice storms, severe storms, dust storms, heavy snowfall, and landslides.

• C.2.5. It is very likely to virtually certain that regional mean relative sea level rise will continue throughout the 21st century, except in a few regions with substantial geologic land uplift rates.

Approximately two-thirds of the global coastline has a projected regional relative sea level rise within ±20% of the global mean increase (medium confidence). Due to relative sea level rise, extreme sea level events that occurred once per century in the recent past are projected to occur at least annually at more than half of all tide gauge locations by 2100 (high confidence). Relative sea level rise contributes to increases in the frequency and severity of coastal flooding in low-lying areas and to coastal erosion along most sandy coasts (high confidence).

• C.2. Cities intensify human-induced warming locally, and further urbanization together with more frequent hot extremes will increase the severity of heatwaves (very high confidence). Urbanization also increases mean and heavy precipitation over and/or downwind of cities (medium confidence) and resulting runoff intensity (high confidence). In coastal cities, the combination of more frequent extreme sea level events (due to sea level rise and storm surge) and extreme rainfall/riverflow events will make flooding more probable (high confidence).

• C.2.7. Many regions are projected to experience an increase in the probability of compound events with higher global warming (high confidence). In particular, concurrent heatwaves and droughts are likely to become more frequent. Concurrent extremes at multiple locations become more frequent, including in crop producing areas, at 2°C and above compared to 1.5°C global warming (high confidence).

• C.3. Low-likelihood outcomes, such as ice sheet collapse, abrupt ocean circulation changes, some compound extreme events and warming substantially larger than the assessed very likely range of future warming cannot be ruled out and are part of risk assessment.

• C.3.1. If global warming exceeds the assessed very likely range for a given GHG emissions scenario, including low GHG emissions scenarios, global and regional changes in many aspects of the climate system, such as regional precipitation and other CIDs, would also exceed their assessed very likely ranges (high confidence). Such low-likelihood high-warming outcomes are associated with potentially very large impacts, such as through more intense and more frequent heatwaves and heavy precipitation, and high risks for human and ecological systems particularly for high GHG emissions scenarios.

• C.3. Low-likelihood, high-impact outcomes could occur at global and regional scales even for global warming within the very likely range for a given GHG emissions scenario. The probability of low-likelihood, high impact outcomes increases with higher global warming levels (high confidence). Abrupt responses and tipping points of the climate system, such as strongly increased Antarctic ice sheet melt and forest dieback, cannot be ruled out (high confidence).

  C.3. If global warming increases, some compound extreme events with low likelihood in past and current climate will become more frequent, and there will be a higher likelihood that events with increased intensities, durations and/or spatial extents unprecedented in the observational record will occur (high confidence).

C.3.4. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is very likely to weaken over the 21st century for all emission scenarios. While there is high confidence in the 21st century decline, there is only low confidence in the magnitude of the trend. There is medium confidence that there will not be an abrupt collapse before 2100. If such a collapse were to occur, it would very likely cause abrupt shifts in regional,weather patterns and water cycle, such as a southward shift in the tropical rain belt, weakening of the African and Asian monsoons and strengthening of Southern Hemisphere monsoons, and drying in Europe.

C.3.5. Unpredictable and rare natural events not related to human influence on climate may lead to low likelihood, high impact outcomes. For example, a sequence of large explosive volcanic eruptions within decades has occurred in the past, causing substantial global and regional climate perturbations over several decades. Such events cannot be ruled out in the future, but due to their inherent unpredictability they are not included in the illustrative set of scenarios referred to in this Report.

• D. Limiting Future Climate Change

Since AR5, estimates of remaining carbon budgets have been improved by a new methodology first presented in SR1.5, updated evidence, and the integration of results from multiple lines of evidence. A comprehensive range of possible future air pollution controls in scenarios is used to consistently assess the effects of various assumptions on projections of climate and air pollution. A novel development is the ability to ascertain when climate responses to emissions reductions would become discernible above natural climate variability, including internal variability and responses to natural drivers.

D.1. From a physical science perspective, limiting human-induced global warming to a specific level requires limiting cumulative CO2 emissions, reaching at least net zero CO2 emissions, along with strong reductions in other greenhouse gas emissions. Strong, rapid and sustained reductions in CH4 emissions would also limit the warming effect resulting from declining aerosol pollution and would improve air quality.

• D.1.1. This Report reaffirms with high confidence the AR5 finding that there is a near-linear relationship between cumulative anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the global warming they cause. Each 1000 GtCO2 of cumulative CO2 emissions is assessed to likely cause a 0.27°C to 0.63°C increase in global surface temperature with a best estimate of 0.45°C41. This is a narrower range compared to AR5 and SR1.5. This quantity is referred to as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE). This relationship implies that reaching net zero42 anthropogenic CO2 emissions is a requirement to stabilize human-induced global temperature increase at any level, but that limiting global temperature increase to a specific level would imply limiting cumulative CO2 emissions to within a carbon budget.

• D.2. Scenarios with very low or low GHG emissions (SSP1-1.9 and SSP1-2.6) lead within years to discernible effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, and air quality, relative to high and very high GHG emissions scenarios (SSP3-7.0 or SSP5-8.5).

Under these contrasting scenarios, discernible differences in trends of global surface temperature would begin to emerge from natural variability within around 20 years, and over longer time periods for many other climatic impact-drivers (high confidence).

• D.2.1. Emissions reductions in 2020 associated with measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 led to temporary but detectible effects on air pollution (high confidence), and an associated small, temporary increase in total radiative forcing, primarily due to reductions in cooling caused by aerosols arising from human activities (medium confidence). Global and regional climate responses to this temporary forcing are, however, undetectable above natural variability (high confidence). Atmospheric CO2 concentrations continued to rise in 2020, with no detectable decrease in the observed CO2 growth rate (medium confidence).

• D.2.2. Reductions in GHG emissions also lead to air quality improvements. However, in the near term, even in scenarios with strong reduction of GHGs, as in the low and very low GHG emission scenarios (SSP1-2.6 and SSP1-1.9), these improvements are not sufficient in many polluted regions to achieve air quality guidelines specified by the World Health Organization (high confidence). Scenarios with targeted reductions of air pollutant emissions lead to more rapid improvements in air quality within years compared to reductions in GHG emissions only, but from 2040, further improvements are projected in scenarios that combine efforts to reduce air pollutants as well as GHG emissions with the magnitude of the benefit varying between regions (high confidence).

• D.2.3. Scenarios with very low or low GHG emissions (SSP1-1.9 and SSP1-2.6) would have rapid and sustained effects to limit human-caused climate change, compared with scenarios with high or very high GHG emissions (SSP3-7.0 or SSP5-8.5), but early responses of the climate system can be masked by natural variability. For global surface temperature, differences in 20-year trends would likely emerge during the near term under a very low GHG emission scenario (SSP1-1.9), relative to a high or very high GHG emission scenario (SSP3-7.0 or SSP5-8.5). The response of many other climate variables would emerge from natural variability at different times later in the 21st century (high confidence).

• D.2.4. Scenarios with very low and low GHG emissions (SSP1-1.9 and SSP1-2.6) would lead to substantially smaller changes in a range of CIDs beyond 2040 than under high and very high GHG emissions scenarios (SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5). By the end of the century, scenarios with very low and low GHG emissions would strongly limit the change of several CIDs, such as the increase in the frequency of extreme sea level events, heavy precipitation and pluvial flooding, and exceedance of dangerous heat thresholds, while limiting the number of regions where such exceedances occur, relative to higher GHG emissions scenarios (high confidence). Changes would also be smaller in very low compared to low emissions scenarios, as well as for intermediate (SSP2-4.5) compared to high or very high emissions scenarios (high confidence).

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The Sandoval County Commission has been asked to approve the Sheriff Department’s policy regarding appropriate use of deadly force. The commission was to consider the sheriff’s updates at its August 19 session. The revisions come at a time of heightened scrutiny given high-profile policing abuses nationwide. The policy updates were presented by Captain Allen Mills who explained that  the document will institute guidelines for the use of deadly and non-deadly force. An introduction to the policy statements  stresses that  “deputies use only the force necessary to effectively bring an incident under control, while protecting the lives of the deputy and others and while accomplishing lawful objectives. It must be stressed that the use of force is not left to the unfettered discretion of the involved deputies. The use of force must be objectively reasonable.”

It makes clear that “deputies may use deadly force only under a reasonable belief that the action is in defense of human life, including the deputy’s life, or in defense of the life of any person in imminent danger of serious physical injury. “To prevent the escape of a fleeing felon who the officer has probable cause to believe poses an imminent threat of death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.” In addition, “where deadly force is not appropriate, deputies may use only that level of force that is objectively reasonable to bring an incident under control, and are authorized to use department-approved, less-lethal force techniques, issued equipment, and canines to achieve the legitimate, lawful objectives of their duties.”

The policy gives added attention to what officers should do when confronted by someone who is agitated or behaving erratically, referred to as excited delirium, which is defined as “a descriptive phrase used by medical researchers to describe the extreme end of a continuum of drug abuse effects, which normally manifests itself as violent behavior in an individual, who is likely to act in a bizarre and manic way.“ It also addresses the use of choke holds such as the restraining technique that led to the death of George Floyd.

 But the policy makes clear that “the reasonableness of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable deputy on scene, rather than with the 20/20 vision of hindsight. The calculus of reasonableness must allow for the fact that deputies must make split‐second decisions in circumstances that are tense, uncertain and rapidly evolving.

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Below are the general guidelines for Sandoval County deputies’ use of force.

  1. Deputies shall utilize verbal advisements, warnings, and/or persuasion when giving arrest commands or other lawful orders, and shall allow a person an opportunity to comply before using force, except when issuing the warning would place the safety of the deputy or another person in jeopardy.
  2. Deputies shall employ defensive and control techniques including the use of Sheriff's Office issued/approved equipment and devices.
  3. Deputies shall use sound judgment and tactics such as requesting back up, calling for a specialized unit or disengagement and area containment to prevent unnecessary confrontation, when possible.
  4. Deputies shall de-escalate or cease the use of force as resistance de-escalates or ceases, or when the intended objective has been accomplished. Deputies shall not escalate situations and they shall use appropriate de-escalation techniques, including verbal techniques.
  5. Force shall never be used with intent to subject a person to torture and/or cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment or punishment.
  6. Deputies shall not utilize physical impact techniques or chemical agents against a mechanically restrained (e.g., handcuffed) person, except as is objectively reasonable to prevent imminent bodily harm to the deputy or another.
  7. Physical control techniques may be used to overcome resistance when movement or restraint of the person is necessary.
  8. Choke holds, a physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, or any physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, for the purposes of incapacitation, is prohibited, except in those situations where the use of deadly force is permitted. [Executive Order 13929]
  9. Discharging a firearm into an aircraft and motor vehicle is prohibited.
  10. Deputies are not required to desist in their lawful efforts to make lawful arrests when resistance is encountered.
  11. Deputies are not required to retreat from situations and may use reasonable force when at risk of physical injury, but are always required use only appropriate and lawful force.
  12. Deputies shall file relevant charges against a known person for their aggressive actions or resistance when force has been used in response to that resistance or aggression.
  13. Deputies shall not unreasonably or unnecessarily endanger themselves or the public when applying this policy.
  14. Deputies shall provide or request medical care for the subject following the use of any force, regardless of complaint of injury.
  15. Deputies shall detain and transport individuals to the appropriate facility when taking a person into protective custody, and consistent with local, state and federal laws.
  16. Each use of force application must be reasonable and separately justified based on the objectively reasonable standard.
  17. Objectively Reasonable Standard
  18. The legal standard used to determine if a deputy's actions (force) was reasonable in light of the facts and circumstances known to the deputy at the time the force was used and lawfully based on the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. [Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989)].
  19. Factors that require careful consideration before a Deputy can use force against a suspect include but are not limited to:
  20. Whether the suspect poses an immediate threat to the deputy or others
  21. The severity of the crime
  22. Whether the suspect is actively resisting arrest
  23. Whether the suspect is a flight risk or attempting to escape custody
  24. The reasonableness of a particular use of force shall be judged from the perspective of a reasonable deputy on scene, rather than with the 20/20 vision of hindsight.
  25. The calculus of reasonableness shall allow for the fact that deputies must make split‐second decisions in circumstances that are tense, uncertain and rapidly evolving.
  26. Totality of the Circumstances
  27. Totality of the circumstances refers to all factors existing in each individual case. In addition to those listed in subsection B. 2, these factors may include but are not limited to:
  28. The training, mental attitude, age, size and strength of the deputy
  29. The training, mental attitude, age, size and strength of the subject
  30. The weapon(s) involved
  31. The presence of other deputies/officers, subjects or bystanders
  32. Environmental conditions
  33. Use of Deadly Force
  34. Deputies are authorized to use deadly force, to:
  35. Protect their own lives and the lives of others from what is reasonably believed to be an imminent threat of death or great bodily harm, or
  36. To prevent the escape of a fleeing felon who the officer has probable cause to believe poses an imminent threat of death or great bodily harm to the officer or others. [Tennessee v. Garner, 771 U.S. 1 (1985)].
  37. When practical, prior to discharge of the firearm, the deputy(s) shall identify themselves as law enforcement officers and state their intent to use deadly force, except when issuing the warning would place the safety of the deputy or another person in jeopardy.
  38. Imminent threat may exist if a deputy reasonably believes any of the following:
  39. The person has a weapon or is attempting to access one and it is reasonable to believe the person intends to use it against the deputy or another.
  40. The person is capable of causing serious bodily injury or death without a weapon and it is reasonable to believe the person intends to do so.
  41. Deadly force is that degree of force which is reasonably likely to cause death or great bodily harm. The use of the following use of force options may result in death or great bodily harm:
  42. Baton (Striking head, neck, sternum, spine, groin, kidneys, etc.)
  43. Firearms
  44. Vehicle Contact
  45. Road Blocks; Refer to SCSO Policy OPR: 08 Vehicular Pursuit policy for further
  46. Weapons of opportunity or any use of force option as outlined in this policy which can result in death or great bodily harm.
  47. When the use of deadly force would be objectively reasonable, deputies are not required to attempt to first use or exhaust non‐deadly force and control options.
  48. Deadly Force Restrictions
  49. Warning shots are prohibited
  50. Discharging shots into a crowd
  51. Use of deadly force to prevent someone from committing suicide except when that person poses an immediate threat to the deputy or others.
  52. Discharging a firearm at or from a moving vehicle is prohibited except where the Deputy reasonably believes:
  53. A vehicle is operated in a manner deliberately intended to strike a deputy or a citizen and all other reasonable means of defense have been exhausted, are not present, or not practical, including moving out of the path of the vehicle, and the safety of innocent persons would not be unduly jeopardized by the deputy’s actions.
  54. Chokeholds, a physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, or any physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, for the purposes of incapacitation, is prohibited, except in those situations where the use of deadly force is permitted. [Executive Order 13929]
  55. Any employee whose actions or use of force results in a death or great bodily harm shall be removed from the line of duty assignment, pending an administrative review, for a duration to be determined by the Sheriff or designee.
  56. Deadly Force- Dangerous Animals and Injured Animals
  57. Deputies may use deadly force to destroy an animal that presents a threat to public safety, or
  58. As a humanitarian measure where the animal is seriously injured and only when the deputy reasonably believes that deadly force can be used without harm to the deputy, or others.
  59. Deadly Force- Suicidal Persons(s)
  60. Use of deadly force to prevent someone from committing suicide is prohibited except when that person(s) poses an immediate threat of great bodily harm and/or death to the deputy or others.
  61. Use of Less-Lethal Force
  62. Where deadly force is not appropriate, deputies may use only that level of force that is objectively reasonable to bring an incident under control.
  63. Deputies are authorized to use department-approved, less-lethal force techniques, issued equipment and canines to achieve the legitimate, lawful objectives of their duties.
  64. Deputies shall use less-lethal force when objectively reasonable and based on a totality of the circumstances and information known to the deputy at the time the force is used in response to resistance or aggression, or to achieve legitimate, lawful objectives which may include but is not limited to:
  65. To defend themselves or others from the use, or imminent use, of physical force;
  66. To affect an arrest or prevent the escape from custody of a person whom the deputy has probable cause to believe has committed an offense;
  67. To take persons into protective custody when authorized by law, such as those who are a danger to themselves or others, pursuant to 43‐1‐10 NMSA 1978 and/or persons incapacitated by intoxication, pursuant to 43‐2‐8 NMSA 1978;
  68. To prevent someone from committing suicide or inflicting great bodily harm upon themselves;
  69. To separate combatants, to move a person in an emergency situation and to overcome passive or active resistance to a lawful order.
  70. To protect someone from harming themselves who is not suicidal, for example an intoxicated person who is stumbling into traffic and not able to take reasonable precautions for one’s safety.
  71. Choke holds, a physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, or any physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, for the purposes of incapacitation, is prohibited, except in those situations where the use of deadly force is permitted. [Executive Order 13929]
  72. When the objective is to place a person in physical custody pursuant to a lawful arrest, the deputy shall advise the person that they are under arrest prior to the application of force unless an exigent circumstance would prevent doing so.
  73. Use of Force - Protective Custody and Community Caretaker Function
  74. A deputy may detain and transport a person for emergency mental health evaluation and care in the absence of a legally valid order from the court and without consent of the individual when:
  75. The deputy has reasonable grounds to believe the person has just attempted suicide;
  76. The deputy, based upon their own observation and investigation, has reasonable grounds to believe that the person, as the result of a mental health disorder, presents a likelihood of serious harm to themselves or others and that immediate detention is necessary to prevent such harm.
  77. A deputy may detain and transport an intoxicated person for protective custody when the deputy has probable cause to believe that the person to be committed:
  78. Is disorderly in a public place;
  79. Is unable to care for the person’s own safety
  80. Has threatened, attempted or inflicted physical harm on themselves or another;
  81. Has threatened, attempted or inflicted damage to the property of another;
  82. Is likely to inflict serous physical harm on themselves
  83. Is likely to inflict serious physical harm on another; and/or
  84. Is incapacitated by alcohol or drugs.
  85. This section is in accordance with §43-1-10, Emergency Mental Health Evaluation and Care, NMSA 1978 and §43-2-8, Protective Custody, NMSA 1978
  86. Medical Care
  87. Medical care shall be provided or requested for the subject following the use of any force.
  88. The subject who received force shall be offered medical care regardless of their complaint of injury or not, and may decline care to a health care provider or emergency medical technician only.
  89. A deputy may not accept a refusal of medical care from the subject who received force.
  90. A person detained and transported pursuant to part F of this section, shall whenever possible, be taken immediately to an evaluation facility. Detention facilities shall be used as temporary shelter for those persons only in an extreme emergency for protective custody in accordance with NMSA 43-1-10 (D).
  91. Unreasonable force is prohibited.
  92. Any employee including commissioned or non-commissioned employees present and observing another deputy using force that is clearly beyond that which is reasonable under the circumstances shall, intercede to prevent the continuation of unreasonable force.
  93. Any employee including commissioned or non-commissioned employees who observes another employee use force that they believe exceeded the degree of force permitted by law shall report these observations to a supervisor as soon as possible.
  94. The reasonableness of a particular use of force shall be judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene, rather than with the 20/20 vison of hindsight. [Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989)]
  95. The calculus of reasonableness must allow for the fact that deputies are forced to make split- second judgements in circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving- about the amount of force that is necessary in a particular situation. [Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989)]
  96. Reserved

Weapons, Equipment, Tactics and Techniques

  1. Verbal Commands
  2. Verbal direction is not necessarily considered an application of force. It shall be the goal of the deputy to generate voluntary compliance in an effort to avoid using force.
  3. Empty Hands Techniques
  4. Empty Hands Techniques include but are not limited to: escort positions, distraction techniques, compliance holds, leverage takedowns, impact takedowns, and ground control techniques.
  5. Choke holds, a physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, or any physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, for the purposes of
  6. Less Lethal Weapons
  7. Less lethal weapons has the potential for causing tissue damage, but a low potential of resulting in great bodily harm when used properly.
  8. Less lethal weapons include, but are not limited to: chemical agents, electronic control devices (ECD), department approved expandable baton, straight baton, riot baton, canine, weapons of opportunity, or vehicles.
  9. When a weapon is not available, a weaponless technique that involves blunt trauma may be used. The most common weaponless techniques include but is not limited to: elbow strikes, hand strikes, knee strikes, and foot kicks.
  10. Chemical Agents
  11. Oleoresin Capsicum (OC Spray) or similar agent may be used as a weapon to subdue an unarmed attacker or to overcome resistance likely to result in injury to the officer or others. OC spray or similar agent is not designed to replace the baton or the firearm.
  12. Deputies must remember that OC spray is sometimes ineffective when used against drugged, extremely intoxicated, or enraged person.
  13. The deputy who uses OC spray against a suspect is responsible for ensuring that the suspect receives first aid and/or medical treatment.
  14. Electronic Control Devices (ECD- Taser)
  15. An ECD may be used against persons who are actively resisting or exhibiting active aggression or to prevent individuals from harming themselves or others.
  16. When practical, the use of an ECD shall be preceded by a verbal warning that force shall be used if compliance is not obtained.
  17. Elevated ECD Application Risk Factors – The following factors, where apparent to involved deputies, require elevated justification of ECD application. Under the following conditions, the risks of foreseeable direct or secondary injuries to the person are foreseeably elevated. Therefore, deputies’ justification(s) for ECD application are also elevated. These evaluated risk factors can only be given consideration when the factors are reasonably perceived by the deputy(s). In less-lethal force situations, when possible, deputies should avoid using the ECD on:
  18. Persons operating a moving vehicle or machinery.
  19. In any environment where the subject’s fall could reasonably result in death, such as in an elevated structure or in water.
  20. Obviously pregnant female.
  21. Persons with apparent debilitating illnesses or the elderly.
  22. Children or persons under eighty (80) pounds.
  23. Persons in wheelchairs.
  24. Persons with pacemakers or other bio-medical devices sensitive to electrical current.
  25. On subjects who are passively resisting.
  26. On a handcuffed or secured prisoner, absent overtly assaultive, overtly resistive, or fleeing behavior (i.e. stiffening up like a board, kicking, head butting, etc.) that cannot be reasonably dealt with less intrusively. It is prohibited to taze a handcuffed or secured suspect.
  27. ECDs shall not be used in the following circumstances:
  28. In a punitive manner,
  29. On cooperative subjects,
  30. In any environment where a deputy knows that a potentially flammable, volatile, or explosive material is present (including, but not limited to: OC spray with volatile propellant, methamphetamine lab, gasoline, natural gas, or propane), and/or
  31. From, or at, moving vehicles.
  32. ECD Carrying and Storage

The device shall be carried in an approved holster on the side of the body opposite to the service handgun.

The device shall be carried fully armed with the safety on in preparation for immediate use, when authorized

  1. Weapons of Opportunity
  2. Should a confrontation suddenly escalate and a deputy has no time to draw and/or use a department approved weapon to defend the deputy’s self or others, the deputy may use any object at hand for defense or control, provided that the use of force is reasonable, given the existing circumstances.
  3. Choke holds, a physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, or any physical maneuver that restricts an individual’s ability to breathe, for the purposes of incapacitation, is prohibited, except in those situations where the use of deadly force is permitted. [Executive Order 13929]


  1. Training
  2. 1. The Sandoval County Sheriff, shall ensure that all agency personnel authorized to carry weapons comply with the following guidelines:
  3. On an annual basis, shall receive in-service training on the department’s use of force policies and demonstrate proficiency with all approved lethal weapons and electronic control devices which the employee is authorized to carry.
  4. The above-listed training shall be accomplished during any phase of firearms qualifications, at which time every employee shall sign for receipt of a copy of this policy and their attendance/participation in the in-service training, attachment 2.
  5. Receive in-service training for other less-lethal weapons and weaponless control techniques every two (2) years.
  6. All documentation from the training shall be forwarded to the deputy assigned as the Training Coordinator for the Sandoval County Sheriff’s Office.
  7. The Training Coordinator shall provide written documentation regarding any agency personnel who fail to receive the above-described training describing the circumstances why the employee(s) was unable to meet the requirements. This documentation shall be forwarded to the Sheriff or their designee no later than November 1st of the year in which the training is to be completed.


  1. H. Remedial

All proficiency training is monitored by a certified weapons or tactics instructor.

Training and proficiency is documented.

Those employees unable to demonstrate proficiency with authorized lethal and less lethal weapons shall receive remedial training and must qualify with those weapons prior to resuming official duties.

All agency personnel authorized to carry lethal and less-lethal weapons receive copies of, and instruction on, the department use of force policy prior to being authorized to carry a weapon. The instruction and issuance of the department use of force policy shall be documented and maintained in the employee’s training record.

In addition to training required for firearms qualification, deputies shall receive agency-authorized training designed to simulate actual shooting situations and conditions, as otherwise necessary, to enhance deputy discretion and judgment in using deadly and less-lethal force in accordance with this policy.

Deputies shall receive training on recognizing signs and symptoms of excited delirium during the ECD certification training as well as receiving any updated information concerning this condition during the annual use of force training.

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Corrales was again the setting for a made-for-TV movie earlier this month. Crews for ABC’s Big Sky series established a base of operations along Corrales Road south of the Corrales Post Office while filming here and in Rio Rancho. This is for season 2, starring Katheryn Winnick, Kylie Bunbury, Brian Geraghty, Dedee Pfeiffer, Omar Metally and Anja Savcic. The first season was filmed in British Columbia. The story line follows private detectives who investigate a car crash outside Helena, Montana, which turns complicated. Their work collides with a band of unsuspecting teens and a vicious outsider. The story is based on books by C.J. Box.

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Production is expected to employ more than 500 New Mexicans as crew and even more as background talent and extras during the filming season that would run through April 2022. The production company, 20th Television, operates within the Disney Studios network. Its work has win 211 Emmy awards and Peabody Awards. among its many shows are The X-Files, Buffy the Vampire Slayer,  Mash, Modern Family, Glee and Batman.

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After a work-study session on how to make Corrales’ laws consistent with state law on marijuana growing, sale and use, the Village Council considered more modifications. The council’s vote on Ordinance 21-06 could not be included in this issue. The proposed amendment to the Corrales ordinance regarding cannabis growing and use reads as follows.

“Cannabis-related activities, approval and permit required.

For purpose of this section, all measurements for the purpose of determining the location of a cannabis retail establishment, cannabis consumption area, or cannabis courier in relation to schools or daycare centers shall be the shortest direct line measurement between the actual limits of the real property of the school or daycare center and the actual limits of the real property of the proposed cannabis establishment, cannabis consumption area, or cannabis courier.

(1) No person(s) or entity shall engage in the production, manufacture, or sale of cannabis or cannabis products in any zones without a current business registration and a valid cannabis permit issued by the Village of Corrales, permitting the specific cannabis-related activity or activities sought to be permitted on the premises. Cannabis permits are issued to the applicant(s) and are not assignable or transferable. Compliance with this section does not alleviate the applicant(s) from requiring approval from the Planning Administrator for all other applicable sections of 18-45.

(2) Application and fee. Anyone wishing to conduct cannabis-related activity must submit a completed application. The application shall be returned to the Administrator accompanied by the appropriate application fee for the use(s) to be permitted, and must show, at a minimum:

(a) the cannabis-related activity or activities are appropriately licensed by the State Regulation and Licensing Department pursuant to the Cannabis Regulation Act.

(b) the cannabis retailer, cannabis consumption area, or cannabis courier facility to be permitted may not be located within 300 feet of a school or daycare center in existence at the time a permit was sought.

(c) the cannabis retailer and cannabis consumption area seeking a permit may not be located within 200 feet of another cannabis retailer or cannabis consumption area in existence at the time a permit was sought.

(d) a site plan, including all greenhouse(s) proposed for the growth of cannabis and any accessory structure(s) located on the premises.

(e) valid proof of identity of the person(s) seeking the permit, indicating they are at least 21 years of age.

(f) proof of ownership or legal occupancy of the premises to be permitted, including an affidavit from the owner of the property that the applicant has permission to conduct cannabis-related activity on the premises if the property is not owned by the applicant.

(g) a valid New Mexico gross receipts tax number.

(h) the name, mailing address, email address, and contact phone numbers (including 24-hour emergency contact numbers) of the owner of the property for which the permit will be issued.

(i) The name, mailing address, email address, and contact phone numbers (including 24-hour emergency contact numbers) of the applicant, if different than the owner of the property.

(j) all other legal requirements as provided for according to the regulations set forth by the Regulation and Licensing Division pertaining to cannabis and cannabis related activity

(3) Compliance with 18-45(a) and 18-45(b) required. Any cannabis establishment seeking to construct or occupy a building or structure requiring a site development plan pursuant to 18-45(a)-(b) of the Village Code must provide documentation of Site Plan approval at the time of permit application.

(a) Greenhouses or other structures incidental to the production of cannabis or cannabis products shall be equipped with an activated carbon HVAC filtration system sized to effectively abate odor emissions.”

The full ordinance makes other changes to the Village’s Code of Ordinances Section 18-32 through 18-45, Section 24-23 and Section 24-26 “providing zoning and permitting regulations for the production and use of recreational cannabis pursuant to the Cannabis Regulation Act of 2021.”

Revisions also affect where smoking marijuana is permissible. Section 14-51, Smoking in Public Buildings, is amended to include “Cannabis. The smoking of cannabis or cannabis products is prohibited in all public areas, including those marked with ‘smoking allowed’ signage as indicated in Subsection 2 of this section.”

The new regulations are considered necessary because “the Village finds that high-yield crop raising, often referred to as ‘intensive agriculture,’ is a common practice with cannabis production, and has potential adverse impacts such as increased discharge of pollutants and light or odiferous nuisances on the village if not properly regulated.”

The August 10 work-study session with the Village Council and Planning and Zoning Commissioners was led by the Village Attorney Randy Autio and P&Z Administrator Laurie Stout.

“It primarily focused on ways to mitigate some of the known issues around cannabis-growing and retail security measures needed, odor abatement methods, exterior lighting and where smoking would be allowed,” Stout said.

“Most of those have been addressed in the earlier draft ordinance, but the Village Attorney was taking notes and the next council meeting may have changes. The main thrust is to get ordinances in place prior to when we have to start accepting applications, and if they need to be tweaked later, they can be.”

Village officials have been anticipating an onslaught of  requests to set up marijuana-growing operations here following legalization of cannabis use for recreation and businesses catering to that demand.

Ordinance 21-06 is the proposed municipal law to bring the Village of Corrales into compliance with the State of New Mexico’s Cannabis Regulation Act that took effect July 1.

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Commercial production of marijuana, or cannabis, has been under way in Corrales for more than five years for use in medical treatments, as permitted by the N.M. Legislature’s passage of the Lynn and Erin Compassionate Use Act. State permits to grow and sell medical marijuana have been issued in increasing numbers as the number of patients being treated with prescription cannabis has soared.

As widely predicted, the N.M. Legislature moved ahead to legalize recreational marijuana in early 2021; the governor signed the Cannabis Regulation Act in April 2021. In a sense, Village officials have anticipated the changes now being implemented for more than five years. In 2017, the Village invited state regulators to explain what lay ahead. (See Corrales Comment Vol.XXXVI No.17 November 11, 2017 “Marijuana Farm Rules.”)

Back then, well before legalizing marijuana, the controversy was over  medical marijuana cultivation and sale and what kind of ordinance should be enacted to regulate it. Three officials from the N.M. Department of Health addressed a council-P&Z work-study session October 24, 2017. A month earlier the Village Council had passed a 90-day moratorium on new applications from medical cannabis growers. The resulting law did not intend to ban marijuana for medical use outright, but would indicate what areas of the community might be appropriate for that use. Most emphasis was setting industry “best practices” for growing and processing marijuana without creating nuisances or disturbances for residents.

At the work-study session, the Health Department’s (DOH) public information officer, Kenny Vigil clarified that the agency’s rules did not require any particular height for perimeter fences around cannabis sites, nor that the plants must be grown indoors. “We approved an outdoor grow earlier this year,” Vigil said in 2017. At that time, a total of 14,500 licensed marijuana plants were being grown around the state. The product was sold at 60 authorized dispensaries. Between 200 and 600 applications were received every day, he reported. New Mexico then had approximately 49,000 medical cannabis users, about half of whom were registered as suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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After yet another failure of the sewer line through Corrales’ business district, Village officials have applied for a $50,000 grant from the N.M. Environment Department to design an emergency bypass line. The agreement with NMED was considered at the August 17 council meeting. The wastewater line down the east side of Corrales Road leading to Albuquerque’s sewer line south of Alameda Boulevard, near Pep Boys, could not carry wastewater last month when valves near  Rincon and Corrales Roads failed to function as designed. But the need for a bypass line was evident when a blockage shut the line down last year. (See Corrales Comment Vol.XXXIX No.,18, December 5, 2020 “Sewer Clog Was From Brewery,  and  Vol.XXXX No.5 April 24, 2021 “Re-Thinking Corrales Sewer System Retrofit.”)

The council’s resolution specified that the grant agreement was “to plan, design, construct a wastewater emergency bypass and collection system for Corrales.” Already under way is an extension of sewer service to higher density neighborhoods east of Corrales Road along Priestly and Coroval Roads. Earlier this year, Public Works Director Mike Chavez responded to questions from Councillor Mel Knight about installing a bypass sewer line in case more blockages occur in the future. “We  are in the starting block for planning a bypass in case something happens to our main sewer line,” Chaves said. “But we also want to pick up wastewater from the residents that it will serve.”

Villagers have debated for years what kind of sewer system would best serve the community —or rather, what the community could afford or find funding for. Decades ago, rough estimates put the cost for sewering all of Corrales at around $70 million. Virtually everyone agreed that was unlikely to  come our way.

After the decision was made to build a liquids-only wastewater line rather than a much more expensive conventional “big pipe” sewer, the next dispute was the more technical question whether the proposed wastewater line  should accept ground-up solids or just water, leaving solids in septic tanks to be pumped out periodically. After much discussion, in 2012 Village officials rejected the proposal for a grinder-pump system. Now that idea is back.

At the April 13, 2021 Village Council meeting, Public Works Director  Chavez responded to a question from Councillor Stu Murray saying he is exploring the possibility that the existing sewer could be converted to a grinder-pump or vacuum system. “That’s in the works,” Chavez replied. Little related discussion followed at the council meeting, but the vacuum or grinder pump alternatives were under consideration after a sewer line blockage in early November last year. In 2012 while planning was well under way for the liquids-only sewer line, Village officials held intense discussions about whether the system would accommodate grinder-pumps. The Village’s engineering firm, Souder, Miller and Associates, was directed to determine whether the sewer system could operate effectively with grinder pumps replacing septic tanks.

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Village officials wanted to know what the cost would be for homeowners and business owners to connect to the sewer line, and what the Village’s ongoing costs would be to operate and maintain such a system. Then-Mayor Phil Gasteyer said state officials overseeing the project and administering state and federal funds for it, “concur that a grinder pump system is preferable for the Corrales situation.” Left unexplained is why the Souder Miller firm did not recommend and design such a system in the first place.

In fact, during the long process leading up to installation of the sewer main along the east side of Corrales Road from Wagner Lane to an Albuquerque sewage station south of Alameda Boulevard, the Souder Miller project manager advised grinder pumps could not be used, with the possible exception of a few commercial users. Gasteyer said in 2012 that he had been assured by officials in the Environment Department’s Construction Program Bureau, its Liquid Waste Bureau and its Groundwater Quality Bureau that a grinder pump system would not only be possible, but preferable.

Gasteyer said funding already available for the sewer project could probably could have covered any additional costs from switching to grinder pumps. “If the N.M. Environment Department, as the supervisory and funding agency, is satisfied with the modifications to grinder pumps, I am optimistic that the associated costs will be absorbed from the State’s Clean Water Revolving Fund loan and grant,” the mayor said at the time. As designed and engineered by Souder Miller, the Corrales sewer was to be a liquids-only system that would retain existing septic tanks at each home and business in the  community’s commercial district but eliminate leach fields.

Other villagers, including former Mayor Gary Kanin who initiated the sewer project a decade earlier, argued that it should have been a conventional “big pipe” system into which all sewage from homes and businesses flowed. But following Souder Miller’s recommendations and directives from N.M. Environment Department, the six-inch diameter sewer main is now in place. Connection to Albuquerque’s sewage pumping station near Pep Boys on North Coors was accomplished.

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A regal, fluffy cat has joined the race to become Corrales’ next Pet Mayor. Ballots will be tallied on the last day of the Harvest Festival, September 26. Votes are $1 each. A ballot box will be available at the Corrales Growers’ Market this month and next. Other ballot boxes are at the Frontier Mart, Village Pizza, the Phillips 66 gas station, Village Mercantile,  the Bistro, Ex Novo and Boxing Bear Brewery. The eighth and final candidate is Lugh, a cat owned by Deborah Dapson. His campaign slogan is “Ready for any CATastrophe!” Lugh’s entry follows that of five dogs, a peacock and a Giant Canada goose.

Jewel, a Standard Poodle, owned by Elizabeth Gutierrez, was the first dog to enter the race.   Jewel’s campaign slogan is “The world needs more love, belly rubs, and paws-itivity!” She wants to show the entire village that you can get things done with a little more love.  

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The second dog was Skittle, a Labrador owned by Allison Coulombe. Skittle’s campaign slogan “She’s not just any Labrador, she’s a LOVE-a-dore!” Odin was the next candidate, and is owned by Laura Arciniegas. He is a Great Pyrenees and a big lovable boy.  Odin’s campaign slogan is “Sun’s out, tongue’s out, vote for me!”  He’s laid back, but can really get things done when he wants to. Nessie was the fourth candidate, and she’s just a baby.  She’s a Newfoundland puppy owned also by Laura Arciniegas. Nessie’s campaign slogan is, “Enough happy to go around.”

The next-to-last candidate, a three-month-old Lab puppy named Bliss, is already in training to become a service dog. Her campaign slogan is “Future Service Dog Will Serve Disabled. But Ready Now to Help Corrales.” You can cast your vote (money) online at, or at the locations listed above.  As always, voting is $1 per vote, ($2 per vote online) and you can vote as often as you want, and with as much money as you want. The Pet Mayor election is a fundraiser benefitting local organizations.

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The coronavirus continues to slam Corrales. Three hundred seventy-two  cases had been reported here on Monday, August 16. “COVID cases continue to increase,” Mayor Jo Anne Roake warned. “Both Bernalillo and Sandoval Counties are still at ‘substantial’ risk. Corrales has new cases almost every day, and our community has lost people to this new surge. What can we do? Get vaccinated. Wear a Mask indoors or in crowded places. Situational awareness and adaptability will get us through. If you have concerns about the vaccine, please contact Commander Tanya Lattin at 703-4182. She is here to help,” the mayor urged.

Calls are intensifying nationwide for measures to confront the disease. The Union of Concerned Scientists called on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to “do a better job of collecting data and staying on top of new developments. “As our kids head back to school, ensuring that we have the correct data and science-based guidance is all the more critical,” the organization’s pandemic response outreach coordinator said. “To protect public health, the main thing we need to do is get more people vaccinated. However, we also need to collect essential data on COVID-19 cases and transmission so that we’re able to respond quickly to new developments with smart evidence-based policies.

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“Contrary to the CDC director’s statement in July, the COVID-19 pandemic is not a ‘pandemic of the unvaccinated.’ The evidence of vaccinated infection and transmission shows that the CDC must step up and proactively collect data on ‘breakthrough’ cases, transmission and emerging variants.” Although many  Corraleños are acting as though the pandemic has passed, 335 people here had the illness as of July 16. Thirty-seven more were added less than a month later.

As of July 16, 4,372 New Mexicans had died from COVID-19, and 207,002 had tested positive for the coronavirus. As of August 14, New Mexico had recorded 218,569 cases, mostly in the 30-50 age group, and 4,446 had died. Two hundred ninety-six were hospitalized with the disease on that date.

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Seventy artists from Corrales and the surrounding area will exhibit, and hopefully sell, their creations during the three-day Corrales Art and Studio Tour September 10-12. Paintings, sculpture, fiber art, ceramics, fused glass, digital art, pastels and photography will be shown,s will one-of-a-kind jewelry and unique wood dowel wall hangings. A preview gallery  at Casa Vieja, 4541 Corrales Road, will introduce tour-goers to what lies ahead. The gallery will open Friday, September 10, 1-4 p.m. and be open throughout the weekend 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Maps of participating studios and gallery locations will be available at Casa Vieja along with a tour catalog. They will also be available from a booth outside the Frontier Mart and other shops in Corrales. Or they can be downloaded at The tour is in its 23rd year, continuously except for pandemic-stricken 2020. Works of art will be priced from the $20 range to several hundred dollars.

This year’s tour features many who have exhibited in the past and several new participants. Among those returning are Barbara Clark, Krysteen Waszak, Sandra Corless, Susana Erling, Ken Duckert, Jeff Warren, Bonnie Mitisek, Lynne Pomeranz, Sue Ellen Rael, Rick Snow and Juan Wijngaard. In addition to those are, in alphabetical order: Chip and Linda Babb, Laura Balombini, Corky Baron, Michael Baron, Kevin Black, Elaine Bolz, John Boyes, Linda Boyes, Lynda Burch, Barbara Burzillo, Candace Cavellier, Christiane Couvert, Diane Cutter, Linda Dillenback, Amy Ditto, Denise Elvrum, Rex Funk, Myra Gadson, Terri Garcia, Doreen Garten, Renee Brainard Gentz, Tricia George,  Cherrymae Golston, Roger Green, Karla Hackman, Gail Grambling Harrison,

D.L. Horton, Elizabeth Huffman, Paul Knight, Fran Krukar, Urey Lemen, Victoria Mauldin, Sandra Moench, Rita Noe, Jenn Noel, Sharon Patrick, Martha Rajkay, Leah Henriquez Ready, Liz Roberts, Maggie Y. Robinson, Barbara Rosen, Sharon Rutherford, Dave Sabo, Cristina Sanchez, Peggy Schey, Mickie Sharp, Tricia Simmons, Emily Spykman, Ivana Starcevic, Greta Stockebrand, Gale Sutton-Barbere, Chris Turri, Gina Voelker Bobrowski, Ken Wallace and Beth Waldron Yuhas.

Since the tour began, Corrales Comment has featured two or more artists participating in that year’s event.They and their artwork have been highlighted in a centerfold photospread and their explanation for their creations have been captured through recorded interview. This year, the featured artists are Paul Knight showing jewelry produced in his workshop and Linda Dillenback, whose paintings often depict succulents, while not neglecting  rabbits and other  critters.

This is Knight’s first year with the studio tour; he will be stationed at Dave Sabo’s studio at the north end of Corrales, rather than at his workshop at the 1.5-acre farm he shares with wife Chris Allen. His metal work is mostly in silver and bronze, but he has produced etchings, illustrations and paintings as well. For the tour, he’ll offer jewelry that can be bought for as little as $25 and other works priced at $300.

The 69-year-old considers himself semi-retired, although he keeps up a routine that some would find grueling. He had recently turned in a report on a field biological survey conducted for the national firm NV5. “I’m doing field studies all the time. I just got done walking two-thirds of the way to Farmington. I run field crews, and I do the reports. I see things all the time that go into my artwork. I get ideas all the time.” The artist, who holds a master’s degree in botany, served 10 years as N.M. State Botanist. His graduate work was in paleo-ethnobotany (the identification of prehistoric plant remains, a subject matter that often turns up in his art.

“In the show, I’ll concentrate on jewelry. I have a lot of different kinds. I will have material that I have collected from the Triassic time period, and Bronze Age jewelry —most people won’t know, but probably every single one of their European ancestors, men and women, for 3,000 years wore only bronze jewelry. Gold and silver generally was not available to people, so bronze was the jewelry from about 2,500 BC to about 500 AD.”

He’ll also show jewelry made from dichroic glass, which has been coated with certain metals which results in high reflectivity, and art pieces from glass as pendants depicting such critters as bees and dragonflies. Those are more recent artforms. “I started out doing etchings and engravings. Later on, I moved into watercolor, mainly of wildlife that I observed around the country and, to some degree, around the world.”

Knight also produces mosaics and bronze sculpture, large and small pieces. “I love doing bronzes. I like doing bronzes almost more than anything else, but the cost of making them and then selling them can be prohibitive.” He explained that a bronze sculpture would cost a minimum of $2,000 a foot in height, so if the piece is five feet tall “you’re talking about $10,000 just to cast it.” He pulled out some small bronzes, maybe two inches tall. “I thought about trying to sell some of these, but there is a lot of work in doing something like that. I’d probably have to sell that for $200 plus dollars, and it’s a small item, so I’m not convinced that people would want to spend that much on them.” Over the past 35 years, most of his jewelry, such as bracelets and earrings, has gone to family members.

Knight has taken only one art class. “That was because, I used to fence and I got stabbed with a sword. I had trouble with muscles in my arm, so the doctor recommended art. I took one art class and that’s when I started drawing. I had never really drawn anything before that. I found drawing very satisfying.” He tried several media, but found he couldn’t tolerate chemicals in oil paints.  “But I’m always experimenting with media. The progression has been from pencils to painting, to bronzes to mosaics, etchings, engravings to glass work. “The only ones of those that I haven’t done recently are the etchings and engravings. Everything else I still do. For subject matter, it is whatever strikes me at the moment.” A possible new departure is combining bronze with glass. “I have some ideas on how to do that.”

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Linda Dillenback has shown her paintings during the Corrales Art and Studio Tour for 10 years. Her painting style may be one of the most recognizable among all the exhibitors, given her consistent subject matter, cacti, and a direct, up-close presentation reminiscent of Georgia O’Keeffe’s work. Dillenback’s paintings were shown in the Onyxswan Gallery in Old Town until it closed amid the pandemic. She will have four paintings in the Fine Arts Galley at the State Fairgrounds September 9-19. For the last several years, her work has been juried into the Corrales Historial Society’s Old Church Art Show.

For the Corrales Art and Studio Tour, she will display at least 15 paintings, most priced between $300 and $525 for the larger sizes. “I want what I show to be representational of the kind of work I can do. So I’m not going to just give away something that I’m really not fond of. On the other hand, it’s really hard for me to part with something that I’ve worked really hard on, and that I’ve learned something with. So I think ‘Oh my gosh, I’ll never be able to do that again!’”

A native of rural Kansas, she received little formal art training; the schools she attended offered no art classes. On the other hand, “What I did during the pandemic was watch a video or two every day about artists around the United States, in all media. So I kinda took a master’s class in art. I don’t know that it improved me any, frankly, but it was inspiring and kept me upbeat.”

She studied portraiture briefly with Deborah Wilcox, which has influenced her work. “If I can suggest something without putting it down in total detail, that’s a big accomplishment. I work on that. You can get so caught up in detail that you don’t take a nice swipe of paint and put it down and leave it down. What Debbie said was, ‘if you take more than three brush strokes, you’re over-working it. But that’s hard to do!”

“I like to do a lot of cactus. I like to do a lot of faces, especially children and dogs. Rabbits are challenging, and I like challenges like painting fur. I tend to be, but I’m working on expressing a certain amount of detail without actually putting it there.”

“Most artists like to try to capture the personality of their subject, and sometimes it’s whimsical… like the way a cow will  look at you.” The artist completes around 15 paintings over a year’s time, all oils. “I’ve experimented with acrylic and watercolor to some degree, but I like oil.” Dillenback  described herself as  a slow, methodical painter who likes to fix what may be errors as they come up. “I like happy mistakes as well.” Her paintings are almost always crisply defined and meticulous in detail, such as the array of needles on cactus. “I  love colors and I  love patterns.” She has done a few commissioned paintings; a relative’s dog and friend’s horses.

Dillenback has painted most of her adulthood, although not continually. Wherever she lived, she usually found a group of artists with whom she could paint. Asked which artists had the greatest influence on her, she first mentioned Georgia O’Keeffe. “I have many artists whose work I look at to learn from. Talk about simplicity, with George O’Keeffe you know exactly what she’s painting.”

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